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A child or adult who experiences any of the following should see a doctor immediately or contact the emergency services:. A review investigated the risk of neuropsychiatric side effects among children and adults receiving oseltamivir. Neuropsychiatric effects are those that healthcare professionals link to a person's mental health and the nervous system. According to the review, between September and May , some 1, people across the globe experienced what it terms neuropsychiatric adverse events NPAEs while taking oseltamivir.
The most common NPAEs among children were abnormal behavior, delusions, and perceptual disturbances. However, the authors suggested that the NPAEs may not have been due to oseltamivir but were a symptom of the influenza virus. For some children, the benefits of taking Tamiflu may outweigh any potential risks. This includes children with severe flu symptoms and those with the following underlying medical conditions:.
The flu is more likely to cause complications in children who have one or more of the above conditions. Research suggests that whether Tamiflu works differs for otherwise healthy individuals with mild flu and those with severe flu or other underlying health issues. Early clinical trials suggested that Tamiflu was highly effective in treating influenza among otherwise healthy people.
The FDA's approval of the drug followed in A Cochrane review reinvestigated the data. The authors found that the drug reduced the duration of flu symptoms by less than a day. Oseltamivir, the generic name for Tamiflu, had no significant effect on whether doctors have to admit people to hospital subsequently. The drug did not significantly reduce serious complications of influenza, such as bronchitis , sinusitis , and middle ear infections.
Some people also experienced side effects when taking the drug. The authors of this review suggested that oseltamivir helps treat the symptoms of flu but does not prevent the virus from replicating. Roche, the company which marketed the drug original, jointly funded a separate study that disagreed with this claim and supported the use of NAIs.
In , countries around the world experienced an outbreak of the H1N1 or "swine flu" virus.
For the first time, researchers were able to collect observational data on the efficacy of Tamiflu in hospitalized patients. A study analyzed the medical records of children whom doctors had hospitalized for flu. Of these, 8 percent who did not receive NAI treatment died as a result of the infection.
This was 2 percent more than the number of children who died after being treated with an NAI.http://tf.nn.threadsol.com/cucec-best-mobile.php
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Also, children who received NAI treatment earlier in the progression of the illness were more likely to survive. Authors of a review suggested that data from people with mild symptoms should not be used to determine whether NAIs are effective for those with severe cases of the flu.
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Typically, in otherwise healthy people, the body's immune system can fight off the influenza virus. In people with weaker immune systems, antiviral drugs may boost the immune system and help rid the body of the virus. A doctor may prescribe zanamivir to treat the flu in children aged 7 years and above or to prevent the flu in those of 5 years and above.
Zanamivir is not suitable for individuals with asthma or other respiratory problems, as it increases the risk of bronchospasm where the muscles within the lungs tighten and restrict airflow. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , fewer than 5 percent of people participating in clinical trials have experienced side effects in response to inhaling zanamivir. Peramivir is an intravenous drug with the trade name Rapivab. A doctor can prescribe peramivir to help treat the flu but not to prevent it.
Peramivir can help treat the flu in children aged 2 years and above. It is particularly convenient for children who are unable to take antivirals orally or via inhalation. According to a review , the side effects of peramivir are more common among children, but they tend to be mild to moderate.
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Research shows that Tamiflu tends to be more beneficial for children and adults with severe flu symptoms and those with serious underlying health conditions. The benefits of Tamiflu for otherwise healthy individuals with mild symptoms should be weighed against the risk of potential side effects. Relenza zanamivir and Rapivab peramivir are two Tamiflu alternatives that are suitable for children.
A doctor will decide which influenza antiviral medication is most appropriate on a case-by-case basis. Article last reviewed by Mon 8 April All references are available in the References tab. Alame, M. Peramivir: A novel intravenous neuraminidase inhibitor for treatment of acute influenza infections. Bachelet, V. The Tamiflu saga continues: Will our conduct change after the publication of the latest systematic review on benefits and harms of oseltamivir? Butler, D. Mitochondria are specialized organelles found in every cell of your body, except red blood cells. There are approximately 1, mitochondria in each human cell.
They are vital to the production of cellular energy. In fact mitochondria are responsible for creating more than 90 percent of the energy needed by the body to sustain health. Inside the mitochondria, ingested sugar is broken down in the body by a process known as glycolosis , which changes glucose to a compound called adenosine triphosphate ATP , which is then converted in to pyruvate.
The pyruvate next delivered to tiny mitochondria. When this system fails, less and less energy is generated within the cell. Cell malfunction, and even cell death, may follow. Diseases of the mitochondria appear to cause the most damage to cells of the brain. Mitochondria damage contributes to developmental delay, mental retardation, autism, dementia, seizures, atypical cerebral palsy, atypical migraines, stroke and stroke-like events, and other psychiatric disturbances.
In early , researchers Kato Tadafumi and Kato Nobumasa at the University in Tokyo proposed a mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis for bipolar disorder. Postmortem tissue samples extracted from the hippocampi of the brains of nine individuals with bipolar disorder showed significant mitochondrial depletion. A search for mutant mitochondrial DNA in the tissue samples revealed two suspect genes.
A Cleveland Clinic survey of 38 outpatients with mitochondrial diseases found 70 percent met the criteria for major mental illness, including 54 percent with lifetime depression, 17 percent with lifetime bipolar, 11 percent with lifetime panic, and 11 percent with current generalized anxiety. On average, the mitochondrial disease was diagnosed about four years after the onset of psychiatric symptoms, and 14 years after a physician was seen for diagnoses. Genetic testing has helped significantly in identifying mitochondrial risk factors.
Out of our 30, genes, only two percent of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA codes for proteins. These genes were considered to be the byproduct of millions of years of evolution — genes were still inherited but were no longer used. Recently, however, scientists have discovered that some of this junk DNA actually switches on RNA that interacts with other genes.
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The field of research of these phenomena is epigenetics. Epigenetics is the science of turning genes on- and-off with nutrients and other chemicals, resulting in changes of expression of those genes. The process of suppressing and enhancing genes is called methylation, a chemical process that, among other things, aids in the transcription of DNA to RNA and is believed to defend the genome against parasitic genetic elements called transposons.
Transposons are spans of DNA that — through a process called transposition — can actually move to different positions within the genome of a cell. Transposition was first observed by researcher Barbara McClintock; this discovery earned her a Nobel Prize in More fascinating is the finding that these mutations may be inherited by children. Environmental toxins have been shown to alter the activity of genes through at least four generations after exposure.
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For example, women who smoke while pregnant double the risk of asthma in their grandchildren. For this reason, no two brains are alike, including those of identical twins. It is thought that about 40 percent of our genes can be modified epigenetically.
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Although identical twins share the same DNA, their epigenetic material can be different. Moreover, the older the twins become, the more discrepancies will occur in their DNA. Fifty-year-old twins have four times as many differentially expressed genes than three-year-old twins. Even more interesting is the discovery that genes are regulated by maternal care.
Thus far, at least nine hundred genes can be altered by maternal care. For example, the presence of a variation in the monoamine oxidase A gene MAO-A combined with maltreatment predicts antisocial behavior. In mid, researcher Moshe Szyf at McGill University reported that commonly-used pharmaceutical drugs can cause such persistent epigenetic changes. Szyf and his co-author Antonei Csoka posit that drug-induced diseases, such as tardive dyskinesia and drug-induced lupus, are epigenetic in nature. More about Lupus below.