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COLONY AND ANCIENT DOMINION
Contents:
  1. Looking Back at 700 Years of Singapore
  2. The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast
  3. Material Information

It is impossible to quit this Historical Account, without lamenting that its able and accomplished author should have committed himself as he has done in the concluding paragraph. The wicked attempt to introduce an arbitrary form of government, he terms supporting the juft rights of the crown, and seems very seriously to lament that the privy-Council had not firmnefs and resolution to perfist in their project. The Right honourable the Lords of the Committee for Trade and Plantations having this day presented to the Board the ensuing Report ; viz.

Rate and government of the island or Jamaica, particularly such. We are further of opinion, that no escheats, fines, forfeitures, or penalties, be mentioned in the said laws to be applied to the publick use of the island; and that your majesty do instruct your governor to dispose thereof for the support of the government. His majesty, taking the fame in consideration, was pleased to approve thereof ; and did order, that the Right honourable Mr.

Secretary Coventry, a draft of a commission and instructions 4. Secretary Coventry, on the 2d inst. His majesty was pleased to order, that Mr. AND we do hereby give and grant unto you, with the advice and consent of the said council, full power and authority, from time to time, as need shall require, to summon or call general assemblies of the freeholders and planters within the said island, and other the territories under your government, in such manner and form as hath been formerly practised and used in the said island of Jamaica.

And our will and pleasure is, that the persons thereupon duly elected, and having before their sitting taken the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, which you shall ccmmissionate fit persons, under the seal of our island, to administer, and without taking which none shall be capable of sitting, though elected shall be called and held the general assembly of the 3. And we do hereby, nevertheless, authorize and empower you, in cafe of invasion, rebellion, or some very great necessity, to pass an act or acts, by and with the consent of the general assembly, without transmitting the fame first to us, to raise money within the said island, and the territories within your government, to answer the occasions arising by such urgent necessities.

And we give you likewise full power, from time to time, as you shall judge it necesssary, to dissolve all general assemblies, as aforesaid. AND whereas by our commission we have directed that, for the future, no general assembly be called without our special directions; but that, upon occasion, you do acquaint us by letter with the necessity of calling such an assembly, and pray our consent and directions for their meeting ; you shall, at the same time, transmit unto us, with the advice and consent of the council, a draft of such acts as you shall think fit and necessary to be passed, that we may take the fame into our consideration, and return them in the form we shall think fit to be enacted: in.

And accordingly we have ordered to be delivered unto you herewith, a certain body of laws, for the use of our said island, framed in pursuance of other laws transmitted unto us by former governors, with such alterations and amendments as we have thought fit, with the advice of our privy-council here; which, upon your arrival in our said island, you shall offer unto the next assembly, that they may be consented to and enacted as laws originally coming from us.

We are willing, nevertheless, that in cafe of invasion, rebellion, or some very urgent necessity, you pass an aft or acts, with the consent of the general assembly, without transmitting the fame first unto us, to raise money within the said island, and the territories depending thereon, to answer the occasions arising by such urgent necessities. And you shall take care that the present style of enacting laws, By the governor, council, and representatives of the commons assembled, be converted into the style of, Be it enacted by the king's most excellent majesty, by and with the consent of the general assembly.

Extract of a Letter from the Earl of Car lisle to Mr. Secretary Coventry. The ad for the revenue, too, I fear will not without difficulty pass; but I shall endeavour all I can to bring them to pass, for which I have greater inducements than my being here, without any hopes from the present state of the treasury, which is exhausted and in debt for their new fortifications.

Copy of a Letter to Mr.

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Secretary Coventry from the Earl of Carlisle. Jago, 11th September, Sir, THE assembly met on the 2d instant, and, I find, are so dissatisfied with the alteration of the government, that I question whether they will pass any of these laws : they have objections against several of them ; as the ad for the revenue that is perpetual, and may be diverted ; they are nettled at the expression in the preamble, that the revenue was raised by the governor and council; and though they cannot deny it to be truth, yet they fay that council was elected by the people, and, though continued under the name of a council, yet was in effect an assembly or representatives of the people.

I have given into their hands a copy of that ad and fourteen more, and gave them liberty to compare them with the original.

Looking Back at 700 Years of Singapore

The ad of militia and some others I keep by me, till I fee what they will do with those they have. All the ads are not yet transcribed ; for but one man can write at a time, and they are bulky; but 1 have enough to keep them employed The speaker came to me on Saturday, to desire liberty to adjourn for a few days, which I consented to, and they adjourned till Thursday morning. Lieut Col. Beeston is speaker, who I recommended to them upon Sir H. He hath the general repute of an honest and discreet gentleman, though he signed the order about the privateer, at which so much offence was taken; but I am satisfied he was no further faulty, than in complying with the directions of the assembly : and I the rather proposed him whom they had a mind to choose to gain the point quietly of recommending, which my Lord Vaughan, I am told, neglected to do.

The assembly appointed a committee to compare these laws with their former: it is said they differ in many things, especially from these laws last sent from Lord Vaughan, which are most usefully framed for their present benefit. I cannot yet tell you what course I shall take to remove this difficulty; but I will do the best I can. I find one of the council more faulty in this than any man in the island, but am unwilling to name him till I have tried the utmost to reclaim him.

Whilst we are here busy about small matters, I doubt your hands are full of greater, and may therefore forget us. We hear the French and Dutch are agreed. The general assembly meeting on the ad.


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What bills I shall fend to Mr. Secretary Coventry, I pray may be dispatched speedily when brought before your lordships, and received; an order to be passed through all offices without delay, being in part of what is so very much wanting towards the support of the good government of this island. Copy of a Letter from the Earl of Carlisle to the Committee.

Atkinson to wait upon your lordships, He was Secretary to Sir Thomas Lynch and my Lord Vaughan, and has been enough acquainted with all my proceedings since my arrival, so as perfectly able to satisfy your lordships in any thing you may defire to know concerning the place, and to lay before you all the several interests of his majesty relating to it. I have, by Mr. Atkinson will give you an account.

His business is wholly to attend your lordships, and, I believe, he will always be in the way. He has prayed me to intercede with your lordships, to excuse what errors he may commit, as having been a West-lndian for these eight years past, and do on his behalf beg that favour of your lordships ; but hope that he will prove so discreet, as to give your lordships no manner of offence. I thought it the readiest and best way to have all things rightly understood, and do hope that issue will be produced from it. Jago de la Vega, Nov. Extractof a Letter from the Earl of Carlisle to Mr.

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Long, refused to answer, with two more, Col. Charles Whitfield and Col. Thomas Freeman. The chief-justice, being a man of very great influence upon the assembly, I presently suspended, and gave the other two less dangerous till morning to consider on it: and then the chiefjustice sent to me his fubmission under his hand, and Col. Freeman submitted ; but Col. Charles Whitfield, otherwise a very good man, went away into the country. These M m 2 reasons. Having used all methods possible with the several members apart, and jointly with the body of the assembly, for the passing the laws, I was, after many conferences and debates, and several adjournments, srustrated, and they threw them all out.

Afterwards, in a full body, by the speaker they gave me the inclosed address, and presented to me a bill for a publick impost, prepared, without giving me notice thereof, in such terms and forms as was not fit for me to pass it in ; but at last in some part consented to such amendments as I and the council thought fit, changing the ftyle of enacting as directed in my instructions, but restraining it to one year, from a fear that if they should have made it perpetual, they should be assembled no more, but be governed by governor and council as they were in Col..

The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast

My lord, you that are now our governor, and here upon the place, cannot but distinguish both, and plainly fee that which, at great distance, is impossible to be known, being always distinguished with the false colours of interest and design. It is to you, therefore, we address ourselves; and do humbly beg you to allure his majesty, which we do from the bottom of our hearts unfeignedly declare, that we are his true, faithful, and loyal subjects. Sir, the present form of the government, as it is now appointed, has these plain and manifest inconveniencies in it: Ist.

That the distance of this place renders it impossible to be put in practice, and does not in any manner fall under the fame consideration as Ireland does, from which, we conclude, the example is taken.

The nature of all colonies is changeable, and consequently the laws must be adapted to the interest of the place, and must alter with it. It is no fmall satisfaction that the people, by their representatives, have a deliberative power in the making of laws; the negative and barely resolving power being not according to the rights of Englishmen, and practised no where but in those commonwealths where aristocracy prevails.

And we do here likewise present unto your excellency a bill for the raising a publick impost unto his majesty, his heirs and successors, for the support of this his government ; and do hereby beg your excellency to accept of it as a real demonstration of our loyalty to our prince and service to your excellency, with assurance that we shall, upon all occasions, he ready to express such further testimonies of the fame as may be suitable to our duty and allegiance.

And that whereas a ship is now lying in the Downs, bound for that island, their lordships advise, that the Right honourable Mr. His majesty, having thought fit to approve thereof, was pleased to order, as it is hereby ordered, that the Right honourable Mr. Whereas there was this day read at the Board a Report from the Right honourable the Lords of the Committee for Trade and Plantations, in the words following ; viz. Nn land ;. They have likewise rejected the bill for raising a public revenue, as being perpetual, and liable as they say to be diverted.

It is objected, that the said laws contain divers fundamental errors. That they were not compared with, and amended by, the last laws sent over by Lord Vaughan. That the distance of the place renders the present method of palling laws wholly impracticable.

Material Information

That the nature of all colonies is changeable, and consequently the laws must be adapted to the interest of the place, and alter with it. That thereby they lose the satisfaction of a deliberative power in making laws. That this form of government renders your governor absolute. That by the former method enacting laws your majesty's prerogative was better secured.

As to the distance of the place, which renders as they fay the present method of making laws altogether impracticable, your majesty having been pleased to regulate the fame, by the advice of your privycouncil, according to the usage of Ireland, such care was taken as that no law might be wanting which might conduce to the well-being of the plantation, and that nothing might be omitted which in all former governments had been thought necessary ; nor is it likely that this colony is subject to greater accidents than your kingdom of Ireland, so as to N n2 require.